This is the area where blog/news posts are made. The four simple steps to a post are title, content, categorize, publish.
This is where existing pages can be adjusted and new pages can be created. The three simple steps here are title, content, publish/update.
This is where all of the images and files you have uploaded live. Files are saved so they can be accessed and used on multiple pages or posts.
This is where comments can be viewed and moderated on your blog.
This is where a theme is loaded in. This is also where navigation can be adjusted and the sidebar can be setup with the features you might be looking for.
This is where add-ons can be searched for and installed.
This is where additional wordpress users can be added into the system. Users have five different levels which give them different permissions throughout the site.